‘Basic terms’- in psychological study and research

Psychology is ‘science’. So any psychological studies conducted should be scientific. There are vast ranges of the method used for research in psychology. But only Some of them are really widespread and used all over the world.

First of all, I would like you to get familiar with some of the commonest terms used in psychology studies.

  • Variables
    the events, characteristics, behaviors, or conditions that researchers measure and study.
  • Participant or subject 

An individual or a group of individuals or animal to be studied by researchers.

  • Sample

Because researchers can’t study the whole population, a subject is considered as a measure of certain population.

  • Population :

A group of people or animals from which a sample for research is obtained.

  •  Data analysis : 

Analysis of particular subject is measured with 5 methods of scientific research (explained later in brief).

  •  Study measure :

Study measure is labeled as data analysis of the sample in the study.

  • Statistical Symbols

symbols used in statistical displays.
*/These symbols can be used by themselves or in equations./*

N = number of scores

X = score (or scores)

M = mean

d = difference of a score from the mean

Σ = sum of

D = difference in rank

r or ρ = correlation

SD = standard deviation

*/(Note: specific terms explained as per required in the manual )/*

## psychological study methods (scientific)

### 1. Quantitative method

A quantitative method of investigation in psychology is also known as a Nomothetic method.

*‘nomos’* (Gk) – Laws.
A psychologist who adopts this approach is mainly concerned with what we share with others.
Establishing laws of generalizations.

### 2. Qualitative method

The research method is more naturalistic and not statistical.
These methods involve- interviewing, observation, ethnography, participant observation and focus groups.

## psychological research themes

There are three main types of psychological research:

### Correlational research

### Descriptive research

### Experimental research

Here is a whole list of psychological research conducted in research.

##  3 types of research experiments

Here is an entire rundown of psychological research, led to look into.

**crucial experiment **

A crucial experiment is an analysis that is planned to test a few theories in the meantime. In a perfect world, one speculation might be affirmed and all the others rejected. Nonetheless, the information may likewise be predictable with a few speculations, an outcome that calls for additional research to limit the potential outcomes.

**pilot study **

A pilot study may be kept running before a noteworthy investigation, with a specific end goal to experiment with various strategies, decide ideal estimations of the test factors, or reveal shortcomings in test outline. The pilot study may not be an analysis as generally characterized; it may, for instance, comprise basically of self-reports.

**Field experiment **

In a field test, members are seen in a naturalistic setting outside the lab. Field tests vary from field studies in that some piece of nature (field) is controlled (for instance, specialists give various types of toys to two identical group of kids in a nursery school). Control is regularly more remiss than it would be in a research facility setting.

Different strategies for research such as case study, interview, opinion polls and naturalistic perception, are frequently utilized by analysts.
These are not exploratory strategies, as they need such viewpoints also characterized, controlled factors, randomization, and confinement from undesirable factors.


SparkNotes Editors. “SparkNote on Research Methods in Psychology.” SparkNotes.com. SparkNotes LLC. 2005. Web. 9 May 2018.

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