Top 5 psychology and neuroscience research of July 2018

hey, hi… This is our featured list of research and studies published in July 2018. we have rated all the research according to its usability, authenticity, approach, and citation.

have a Look at The top 5 Psychological Research in the field of psychology in July 2018

  1. Multiplexing qualities of Neurons
  2. Paralyzed Mice with spinal cord injury Made to walk again
  3. Student-athletes are always at risk of  sleep paralysis and dream-like hallucination
  4. Ultrasound applied to the brain could help treat patients with dementia
  5. Sugar improves memory in over-60s, helping them work smarter

  • Multiplexing qualities of Neurons:

Main Article: Single neurons may encode simultaneous stimuli by switching between activity patterns

Published in Nature Communications on July 18, 2018.

Source: Duke University

In an experiment examining how monkeys respond to sound, a team of neuroscientists and statisticians found that a single neuron can encode information from two different sounds by switching between the signal associated with one sound and the signal associated with the other sound.

“The question we asked is, how do neurons preserve information about two different stimuli in the world at one time?” said Jennifer Groh, professor in the department of psychology and neuroscience, and in the department of neurobiology at Duke.

“We found that there are periods of time when a given neuron responds to one stimulus, and other periods of time where it responds to the other,” Groh said. “They seem to be able to alternate between each one.”

The results may explain how the brain processes complex information from the world around us, and may also provide insight into some of our perceptual and cognitive limitations. The results appeared July 13 in Nature Communications.

 

  • Paralyzed Mice with spinal cord injury Made to walk again

Main Article: Reactivation of Dormant Relay Pathways in Injured Spinal Cord by KCC2 Manipulations

Published in Cell, on July 19, 2018.

Source: Boston Children’s Hospital

Most people with spinal cord injury are paralyzed from the injury site down, even when the cord isn’t completely severed. Why don’t the spared portions of the spinal cord keep working? Researchers now provide insight into why these nerve pathways remain quiet. They also show that a small-molecule compound, given systemically, can revive these circuits in paralyzed mice, restoring their ability to walk.

The study, led by Zhigang He, Ph.D., in Boston Children’s F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center, was published online July 19 by the journal Cell.

“For this fairly severe type of spinal cord injury, this is most significant functional recovery we know of,” says He. “We saw 80 percent of mice treated with this compound recover their stepping ability.”

  • Student-athletes are always at risk of  sleep paralysis and dream-like hallucinations

Main Article: Sleep paralysis and hallucinations are prevalent in student-athletes: Study also suggests sleep disorders are associated with depression symptoms.

Published in ScienceDaily, 4 June 2018.

Source– American Academy of Sleep Medicine 

Sleep paralysis and hallucinations are prevalent in student athletes

Pilot data from a recent study suggest that sleep paralysis and dream-like hallucinations as you are falling asleep or waking up are widespread in student-athletes and are independently associated with symptoms of depression.

The preliminary findings of this study suggest that these symptoms may be warning signs of another medical problem.

“These sleep symptoms are usually harmless on their own, but they can be a sign of more serious sleep problems,” said lead author Serena Liu, a student research assistant in the Sleep and Health Research Program directed by Grander. “The fact that they are so common among student-athletes suggests that this is a group with some significant sleep problems that should be evaluated and dealt with.”

  • Ultrasound applied to the brain could help treat patients with dementia

Main Article: Whole-brain low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy markedly improves cognitive dysfunctions in mouse models of dementia – Crucial roles of endothelial nitric oxide synthase

Published in Brain Stimulation, July 20, 2018

source: Tohoku University

  • The whole-brain LIPUS is effective and safe in two mouse models of dementia.
  • LIPUS enhanced angio- and OPC-genesis in a mouse model of vascular dementia.
  • LIPUS enhanced angiogenesis and reduced Aβ in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease.
  • eNOS plays a key role in the beneficial effects of LIPUS in both mouse models.LIPUS therapy to the whole brain may be a new strategy for dementia in humans.

Ultrasound waves applied to the whole brain improve cognitive dysfunction in mice with conditions simulating vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. It is possible that this type of therapy may also benefit humans.

  • Sugar improves memory in over-60s, helping them work smarter

Main Article: Gain without pain: Glucose promotes cognitive engagement and protects positive effect in older adults

Published in  Psychology and Aging, July 18, 2018.

Source: University of Warwick

Sugar improves memory in over-60s, helping them work smarter

When faced with a cognitively demanding task, older adults tend to disengage and withdraw effort. At the same time, their usual processing preference for positive information disappears. Providing glucose as an energy resource is known to improve cognitive performance and reinstate older adults’ positivity preference.

Konstantinos Mantantzis, a Ph.D. student from the University of Warwick’s Department of Psychology, commented:

“Over the years, studies have shown that actively engaging with difficult cognitive tasks is a prerequisite for the maintenance of cognitive health in older age. Therefore, the implications of uncovering the mechanisms that determine older adults’ levels of engagement cannot be understated.”

Dr. Friederike Schlaghecken, from the University of Warwick’s Department of Psychology, commented:

“Our results bring us a step closer to understanding what motivates older adults to exert effort and finding ways of increasing their willingness to try hard even if a task seems impossible to perform.”

 

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